Author: Suzanne Broussard, PhD
The Premarket Notification 510(k) Program is the pathway used by manufacturers of low- to moderate-risk devices that are substantially equivalent (SE) to a device already on the market in order to begin the process of legally marketing in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) release of 4 updated 510(k) guidance documents on September 13, 2019 was intended to both help streamline the FDA reviewer process and help sponsors save time and resources.
The 510(k) Program is required for any device that does not need a Premarket Approval Application (PMA) and does not meet the specified exceptions. The sponsor must demonstrate that a device is at least as safe and effective, e.g. SE, to a legally marketed device that is not subject to PMA. The 510(k) submitters must receive a SE order from the FDA in order to market the device in the U.S. The SE determination typically takes 90 days, although that time is decreasing. Indeed, faster response times are one of FDA’s anticipated outcomes of these 4 guidance documents. The FDA hopes another outcome will be more guidance for the sponsors to streamline their submission process which will save time and resources. These outcomes are prevalent throughout the document and summarized in the FDA statement that 510(k) submissions “address the recommendations of an FDA guidance document should be easier to prepare by manufacturers and for FDA to review.”
FDA Definition of a Legally Marketed Device
Legally marketing a device based on a claim of substantially equivalent to devices legally marketed prior to May 28, 1976 (preamendments devices) requires the manufacturer to submit a Premarket Notification 510(k). The majority of premarket devices use the 510(k) program; hence, it is important to clarify FDA’s definition of a legally marketed device.